Budget: variously $90-100,000 (and $92,000), including subsidies from two government bodies - $15,000 from the Australian Council for the Arts, and $16,000 from the newly formed Australian Film Development Corporation
Locations: Australiana village, Wilberforce, near Sydney, two week schedule
Filmed: May 1971, immediately following the closing of the stage musical on which the film was based.
Australian distributor: Self-distributed.
Theatrical release: 'preview' Ballarat 3rd December 1971, the 117th anniversary of the Eureka Stockade. 9th December Sydney at the Mecca theatre in Kogarah and the Mandala theatre Paddington for the Christmas season, then scattered screenings thereafter. The film was viewed, if at all, in an abridged form screened on television, and in prints distributed to schools.
Running time: 90 mins (Oxford Australian Film)
Box office: n/a, minimal. The film never obtained a mainstream release, and did not travel internationally. It was four walled by the producers but with mixed success.
According to the NFSA, the film was entered into the Brisbane Film Festival in 1972.
At time of writing, there doesn't appear to be any version of this film available - printing materials are not listed in the NSFA archives - all that shows up is artwork for the poster - though in a press release here the NFSA reported that they had discovered a copy of the film (along with the director's long form cut of Jim Sharman's Shirley Thompson versus the Aliens.)
The film is frequently confused in the online marketplace with a 1990 Charlie Sheen picture of the same name, Stockade, directed by Martin Sheen.
If someone tells you you'll be getting Hans Pomeranz and Ross McGregor's Stockade, starring Michele Fawdon and Rod Mullinar, make sure you get them to check the tape before offering to pay.
Kenneth Cook's play was first staged in 1971, and like his 1968 novel The Wine of God's Anger, the musical was part of his passionate opposition to the war in Vietnam, with Stockade offering the chance to protest against government oppression. There is a biographical entry on Cook at the ADB here.
The LP version based on the musical play (CAMS-161, Camden Stereo Records) provided this short CV for Cook:
Kenneth Cook is 41 and lives at Clontarf, Sydney, with his wife Patricia and four children. He is the author of twenty books, including novels, works on travel, photographic studies and text books. He is also a film producer and his films have been running on the A.B.C. for the past five eyars under such titles as Lens on Lilliputt, Lens of Life, Under the Sea, Focus on Flowers, A'Roving, Etc.
He has written some sixty songs which have been recorded by various companies usually sung by his wife Patricia who supplies the melodies to his lyrics from her repertoire of folk songs.
Cook was awarded a 1970 Commonwealth Literary Fellowship on which he wrote the novel, Piper in the Market Place, and received a commission to do the screen play for the film of the same title.
"Stockade" was commissioined by the National Drama Foundation.
Stockade was the first play by writer Kenneth Cook, better known for his novel Wake in Fright, which was also released as a film adaptation in 1971.
The play was commissioned by the New South Wales Drama Foundation and after a bruising encounter with the Jane Street Theatre team, Cook withdrew it and it was then first performed in March 1971 at the Independent Theatre Sydney. The film version retained the play's producer as 'director of acting', along with most of the original cast.
The libretto for Stockade was published in 1975 by Penguin, as the second in its series of Australian drama. (Thomas Keneally's play Halloran's little boat, based on his novel Bring Larks and Heroes was published in the same edition).
Stockade is one of a number of Australian productions to look at the Eureka Stockade - other major productions include the 1949 Harry Watt's feature film and the Henry Crawford miniseries, and a silent film shot in 1907.
Stockade is significant not so much for the quality of the film - it is generally conceded to be a dud - but because of the storm that surrounded it.
The film itself was done on the cheap. It was shot on 16mm on a two week schedule at the Australiana village at Wilberforce, then a small town near Sydney. A substantial component of the budget (over one third) came from new federal government funding sources, and this would prove a bone of contention.
Rob Mullinar, Graham Corry, Max Cullen, Sue Hollywood, Michael Rolfe, Norman Willison and Michelle Fawdon were amongst the key cast - all had been in the original stage play - but it was the transparent attempt to turn out a cheap film using a pre-existing stage musical that became another bone of contention.
Sylvia Lawson in The Australian was dismayed that an opportunity to make a real film about a signficant historical event had been missed, and that instead filmgoers were being offered a film of a play without being told that was what they were getting.
The film never had a proper theatrical release, but many people heard about the film without actually seeing it.
The film was attacked by Liberal MP for Ballarat Dudley Erwin for receiving government funding while containing immoral content (some scenes were set in a brothel in the Eureka Hotel, with 'Ma' Bentley 'conducting' the seductions - the film was later approved for screening to secondary school students doing junior history and drama and film appreciation).
The MP proposed that the film be withdrawn from exhibition, ironic in that the film struggled to reach an audience.
More significantly, the film failed to find a commercial distributor, as explained by Brian Davies in Pomeranz's obituary in the Sydney Morning Herald on November 15th 2007:
In 1971 the feature film Stockade ignited a political and commercial battle that nearly ruined Spectrum but galvanised the community. Australian cinemas generated about $85 million annual income for the United States industry, tax-free, because the US distributors and exhibitors claimed that their earnings here only met the costs of making prints for Australia...
...A distribution company undertook to exhibit it but the deal fell through. Exhibitors and distributors closed ranks, offering the identical deal, but not one the filmmakers would accept. Cook and Pomeranz argued that Australian audiences were to be denied seeing an Australian film about Eureka funded by AFDC. Stockade became a national political controversy.
Kenneth Cook and Hans Pomeranz decided that they would self-distribute (fourwall) the show.
However this brought the producers into conflict with the NSW government, which refused to enforce quota regulations for Australian films, but enforced regulations in relation to the prohibition of public screenings in unlicensed halls near picture theatres. Davies continues the story:
Cook and Pomeranz eventually arranged for a premiere in the Orange Civic Centre. The NSW chief secretary, Eric Willis, raised health and safety issues and said that films could not be publicly screened within several hundred metres of cinemas. Pomeranz alleged that filmmakers were up against "slush funds" from America. The film, which was given some sympathetic reviews (along with some hostile ones) remained a costly outcast. It was premiered in Ballarat and screened in halls around Victoria. A nervous industry applauded.
It wasn't quite like that - there were dissident members of the industry, as well as dissident critics, who argued that the film wasn't of sufficient quality to justify making a stand.
Pomeranz at first persisted. He demanded that the Chief Secretary Eric Willis initiate an inquiry into the New South Wales industry, and the control of distribution and exhibition by foreign companies, proposing that Australia was a dumping ground for overseas films, and demanding that American profits be put into Australian productions - with 10% of films screened to be Australian made.
The AFDC investment in the film also caused controversy. Greater Union's managing director called the corporation a joke, suggesting that its executives knew little about the film industry or distribution, and Tom Jeffrey, as the secretary for the Producers and Directors Guild, responded by suggesting in its first year of operations the AFDC had done more to encourage and invest in local films than GU had done in the past 25 years.
The Australian Theatrical Employees Association even talked of establishing a chain of cinemas around Australia to promote local product, but nothing would come of the proposal.
Nothing happened immediately - the regulations were maintained - but the controversy was another reminder of the difficulties producers faced, and added to the momentum for change and for government assistance, on both federal and state levels. In the end Pomeranz withdrew from the battle, and Stockade quietly disappeared from view.
4. Hans Pomeranz:
After the fuss over Stockade, Pomeranz, a Dutch immigrant who arrived in Australia in the nineteen fifties, gave up film production.
He concentrated instead on his post-production facilities house, Spectrum Films on Sydney's north shore, which he'd established in 1964, and which had faced financial difficulties because of the facilities investment it had made in the production.
Spectrum recovered, and it would be fair to say that in its hey day there were very few film-makers who didn't cut a film at Spectrum.
Brian Davies' obituary of Pomeranz is currently available at the Sydney Morning Herald website here.
Pomeranz and his family came from the Netherlands in the 1950s after enduring the horrors of the second world war - Pomeranz had ended up in an orphanage, and as a "son" of Protestant minister, to escape the German occupiers. It's worth quoting Davies at length in relation to Pomeranz's career in the film industry:
Working in a film laboratory, he wanted to be where the films were shot and made. He began dropping into the ABN-2 newsroom at Gore Hill, running messages. When a vacancy for a trainee film editor arose, an affectionate cry went up: "Give the wog the job!"
Pomeranz graduated swiftly from editing news and newsreels to the program Weekend Magazine. Scriptwriters wanted him to edit their stories. Film editing was his forte and provided a community in which he clinched his citizenship, put down his professional roots, developed a network of friends and heard the first siren call of the industry's quests for talent.
Of the scriptwriters who hounded him, Kenneth Cook, who made the film Wake In Fright, broke from the ABC to make children's programs, persuading Pomeranz to join him. In 1964, Pomeranz established Spectrum Films, an editing service for independents. Over the next 45 years it became a mecca for Australian and overseas filmmaking post-production.
David Elfick, a film producer, says that before there were any film development corporations, there was Pomeranz. He supported surf moviemakers such as Bob Evans, Paul Witzig and Albert Falzon with facilities, finance and editing. Spectrum became the school for emerging filmmakers.
In 1971 the feature film Stockade ignited a political and commercial battle that nearly ruined Spectrum but galvanised the community. Australian cinemas generated about $85 million annual income for the United States industry, tax-free, because the US distributors and exhibitors claimed that their earnings here only met the costs of making prints for Australia. Stockade was a dramatic musical about the Eureka Stockade, with story and lyrics by Cook. Harry Kippax, the Herald critic, hailed it.
With basic funding from the fledgling Australian Film Development Corporation, Cook adapted the stage script. Pomeranz would direct, edit, post-produce and invest in the film. Rod Mullinar, Max Cullen, Sue Hollywood and Michelle Fawdon were cast. A distribution company undertook to exhibit it but the deal fell through. Exhibitors and distributors closed ranks, offering the identical deal, but not one the filmmakers would accept. Cook and Pomeranz argued that Australian audiences were to be denied seeing an Australian film about Eureka funded by AFDC. Stockade became a national political controversy.
Cook and Pomeranz eventually arranged for a premiere in the Orange Civic Centre. The NSW chief secretary, Eric Willis, raised health and safety issues and said that films could not be publicly screened within several hundred metres of cinemas. Pomeranz alleged that filmmakers were up against "slush funds" from America. The film, well reviewed, remained a costly outcast. It was premiered in Ballarat and screened in halls around Victoria. A nervous industry applauded.
The Eureka Stockade battle, though lost, liberated its successors.
The Australian industry flourished and at least a third of Australian films and overseas productions set in Australia have been post-produced at Spectrum. Film-makers using Spectrum included Peter Weir, Bruce Beresford, Gillian Armstrong, Jane Campion, Ian Barry and Phil Noyce. Films included Mission Impossible, Matrix, Newsfront and The Piano.
Hans married Margaret Jones-Owen. Their sons, Josh and Felix, followed him into the film industry; Margaret became a film reviewer.
After a heart transplant in 1994, he raised funds for St Vincent's Hospital and made information films for patients facing surgery. He was passionate about cricket, soccer and cryptic crosswords.
An agnostic, he was a fierce advocate of social justice and staunch defender of Israel, fearing that, for Jews, "one day it could all happen again". He was awarded a medal in the Order of Australia.
5. Kenneth Cook and the play Stockade:
Adrian Guthrie in his University of Wollongong thesis, here in pdf format, at time of writing, outlined the initial difficulties writer Kenneth Cook encountered in the first attempt to stage the musical:
...The other play scheduled for the 1970 Jane Street season was Stockade, commissioned from Kenneth Cook. It was plagued with difficulties which arose from a rigidly conventional playwright meeting a wildly unconventional performance group. The production did not survive to a public season at Jane Street, and this caused a controversy which the N I D A organisers met with a disgruntled public silence. The difficulties lay in the heart ofthe Jane Street project which had been set up as an 'experimental theatre', but was organised along very formal lines. Authors were commissioned to write plays for Jane Street; however, in the hands of (Rex) Cramphorn and the members of the Performance Syndicate, these were scripts that were treated for development...
...The workshop of the script titled Stockade, by Kenneth Cook, failed to come to a public performance and was withdrawn by the author who felt that no respect was given to his text.
6. The Play's Music:
With the film not available, the best clue to the music in it and the musical play comes from the LP sleeve notes (CAMS-161), which describes the recorded songs this way:
The Cross of the South: The story of the Eureka Stockade in ballad form, giving the generally accepted historical version. This song occurs several times in various forms during the play and is used to illustrate the difference between things as they were thought to be and as they probably were (for lyrics to this song, see this site's pdf of music credits);
Ballarat and Bendigo: A rollicking song of the gold fields setting the scene into which men plunged hoping to make their fortunes;
Eureka Lead: A sad song of the gold fields setting out the usual plight of men who took the idea of "Ballarat and Bendigo" seriously, but found that the reality was a very different thing from the dream;
The Trooper's Song: The song of the trooper police, depicting their dream of violent militarism whose contribution to the tragedy of Eureka is only equalled by the miners' violent romanticism;
There Comes a Time: The rousing call to action when the miners finally decide to build the stockade. There comes a time in a man's life, the song suggests, when violent and dangerous action is the only course open to him. The point of the play is that this is the time to go home, take an aspirin and forget all about it;
I Saw a Man: Illustrating the utter futility of war in general and used in the play to depict the futility of the little war at Eureka in particular;
I Can See the Troopers Coming: Sung by the sentry as he sees the trooper police charging the stockade for the first time;
The Victory Song: Sung by the people in the stockade when the troopers fall back after the first attack;
Red Poppies: The lament of a girl for her lover killed in the Stockade. This is used ironically in the play in that her lover was killed by a foolish accident. He is nonetheless seen as the first martyr of Eureka and his death is used to stiffen the miners to resist the last great attack;
Have You Drums There?: The last song in the play. The stockade has fallen. Twenty-nine of the miners are dead. Their leader, Peter Lalor, is wounded. One of the trooper officers appears on the Stockade and he and Peter Lalor confront each other for the last time. As the song ends the officer raises his sword and kisses the hilt. Peter Lalor laconically salutes. It is the recognition by the two remotely sane men in the whole affair that it should have happened otherwise.
The LP sleeve provides these details regarding the timings:
Finally, while the information is only applicable to the LP release, it's worth noting the sleeve account of the group Black Plus Red, which performed the songs on the LP:
Black Plus Red, the singing group featured on this album originally started as a duet. Robert Dean and Mel Rawlinson adopted the name when they designed stage costumes in these colours for their singing act.
The two girls, singing sisters Denise and Clare McNamara joined when Bob heard them singing in a talent quest and asked them would they care to join and form a quartet. The girls were agreeable and thus "Black Plus Red" was formed in its present image. Their singing of their original song "H.M. Bark Endeavour" on a television quest resulted in them signing a recording contract with RCA and their first record was a special album built arond "H.M. Bark Endeavour" to commemorate the Captain Cook Bi-Centenary year.
At this time Mel Rawlinson left the group and Lin Lewis took his place as a singer-guitarist, to form the group which you now hear perform so ably in this presentation of the songs from "Stockade".